12 Common Injuries- Causes and Cures

As part of our Health Month we have outlined the most common injuries and what causes them whilst in training for a marathon. We wanted to share the best ways to prevent injury and how best to treat an injury.
12 Common Injuries- Causes and Cures

Runner's knee

Tender pain around or behind the kneecap

Cause: Continual force of pounding on the pavement, Downhill running, Muscle imbalances

Cure: Stick to flat or uphill terrain, Softer running surfaces, Tape your knee, Use  a knee brace, Anti-inflammatory medications ,Cut back on mileage

Achilles tendinitis

The swelling of the Achilles

Cause: Rapid mileage increase, improper footwear, tight calf muscles

Cure: Always stretch the calf muscles post-workout, wear supportive shoes, avoid hill climbing, Anti-inflammatories, stretching, R.I.C.E strategy (rest, ice, compression, and elevation)

Plantar fasciitis

Inflammation, irritation, or tearing of the plantar fascia—doctor speak for the tissue on the bottom of the foot

Cause: Excess pounding on the road, wearing unsupportive footwear

Cure: Wear shoes with extra cushion, stretch your heels, doctors recommend wearing custom-made orthotics

Shin splints

Aching, stabbing sensation in your shins

Cause: Muscles and tendons covering the shinbone become inflamed

Cure: Ice shine for 15-20 minutes, keep elevated at night to reduce swelling. Prevention is difficult, wear shock-absorbing insoles and correct footwear

Iliotibial band syndrome

Pain on the outside of the knee, due to the inflammation of the Iliotibial band

Cause: Increased mileage, downhill running, or weak hips.

Cure: Specific stretches for the ITB, along with foam rolling

Stress fracture

Tiny cracks in the bone

Cause-Repeatedly pounder greater amounts of force than the leg bones can bear

Cure: Taking some time off is a must and usually invloves crutches with a side of physical therapy

Patellar tendinitis

Tiny tears in the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone

Causes: Overpronation, over-training, and too many hill repeats 

Cure: Strengthen the hamstrings and quads and ice the knee at the onset of pain. Doctors also recommend physical therapy to help soothe and strengthen the tendon

Ankle sprain

A sprain occurs when the ankle rolls in or outward, stretching the ligament

Causes: Curbs, potholes, tree branches, or just an unfortunate landing are just a few of the culprits

Cure: Balance exercises like single-legged squats to strengthen the muscles around the ankle, solid rest after the sprain occurs—a doctor might also recommend an ankle brace or air cast, and taping it up when you’re ready to get back out there to prevent re-twisting

Pulled muscles

When a muscle is overstretched, fibres and tendons can tear and cause a pulled muscle

Causes: Overuse, inflexibility, and forgetting to warm-up

Cure: Proper warm-up, cool-down, and dynamic stretching pre-workout. While the pain persists, lay off running and stick to gentle stretching and icing the muscle

Blisters

As the heel rubs against the shoe, the top layer of skin can tear, leaving a bubble between the layers of skin

Cure: The best way to beat them is prevention! Make sure the shoe fits well and wear a good pair of synthetic socks  . If a blister still appears, cover it up with special blister plasters

Chafing

When skin rubs against skin, the skin can become angry and irritated

Cure: Wear a pair of longer running shorts or capris to avoid that skin-on-skin action.  There are also gel products to keep skin from chafing

Side Stiches

Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) affects nearly 70 percent of runners. Cause-Diaphragm beginning to spasm from being overworked and suggest poor running posture could be to blame

Cure: Try bending forward and tightening the core, or breathing with pursed lips to help ease pain